https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/issue/feed International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry 2021-10-12T10:33:11+00:00 International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry contact@journalijrrd.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Research and Reports in Dentistry&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJRRD/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Dentistry’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30153 Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: A Diagnostic Perplexity 2021-08-04T09:49:44+00:00 Nidhi Sinha niii.shiv@gmail.com Meghanand T. Nayak Shreya Gupta Devangi Dwivedi Neeti Swarup Mansi Agarwal <p>Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is an uncommon pathological lesion which is defined as a diffuse, white and smooth or papillary or wart-like exophytic growth of oral mucosa showing capricious degrees of epithelial hyperplasia. Initially, the lesion shows focal clinical hyperkeratosis that gradually becomes a comprehensive multifocal disease. In its primary stages, the lesion clinically is bland that it is often diagnosed as frictional hyperkeratosis or hyperplastic candidiasis, but with its descriptive natural features of chronic proliferation, copious occurrences, refractoriness to treatment and high rate of malignant transformation, it can be positively diagnosed as oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (OPVL).</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30155 Excision of Telangiectatic Granuloma Using 810 nm Diode Laser and 10,600 nm CO2 Laser: A Case Report 2021-09-28T05:41:48+00:00 Prerna Ghodke Sharayu Rajendra Dhande dhandesharn1234@gmail.com Rashmi Hegde Waqas Ansari Sangeeta Muglikar Salman Sayyed <p>Telangiectatic granuloma is a solitary, pedunculated and vascular lesion. Etiology can be any trauma or chronic irritation can is formed from granulation tissue. Differential diagnosis can be varied from clinician to clinician. However, the final diagnosis will always be based on co-relation of clinical, radiographic and histopathological features. For such vascular lesions, lasers are preferred and compared over scalpel due to their haemostatic action, precise incision, coagulation property, better wound healing. Diode laser mechanism works on ‘hot-tip’ effect which is accumulation of heat at the end of fiber tip and results in to thick layer of coagulation on the treated surface. The CO<sub>2</sub> laser was concomitantly used during this case because of its larger spot size and continuous mode and its bactericidal action.</p> 2021-08-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30160 An Interim Prosthetic Rescue with Natural Tooth Pontic – A Case Series 2021-09-28T06:05:22+00:00 Nikhila Chandramohan niki_cm91@hotmail.com A. Swetha Faiza Fathima <p>Sudden loss of an anterior tooth cripples a person functionally and emotionally. Esthetic demands, functional needs, treatment sequencing, timeliness and affordability are some primary concerns that must be addressed in such a scenario. A patient would generally want a cosmetic and functional prosthetic replacement at the earliest. Providing the most appropriate interim prosthesis for a given patient is challenging. In this case series we describe a clinical technique being an immediate provisional option utilizing a resin bonded, wire retained natural tooth as a pontic to restore the edentulous space until the final restoration. Using the patient’s own natural tooth offers the benefit of retaining original anatomy, being economical and fulfills functional and psychological requirements of the patient to an extent. It was seen that the natural tooth pontic served as a satisfactory interim restoration. The same natural tooth pontic can be used as a provisional prosthesis during two stage implant procedure as well.</p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30161 Incorporation of Special Techniques in the Complete Denture Workflow for an Impaired Elderly Patient: A Case Report 2021-09-28T06:07:25+00:00 Dimokritos Papalexopoulos dimpapalex@hotmail.com Nikitas Sykaras Nick Polychronakis <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To report a case of complete removable dentures fabrication for an impaired elderly patient incorporating techniques such as the neutral zone without increasing the number of clinical appointments.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of Case: </strong>Many factors took part in implant refusal as a part of the rehabilitation plan such as systemic conditions, anatomic restrictions, patient’s needs and financial limitations. Consequently, knowledge of how to adequately treat these cases with conventional means is of major importance. Case report of an 83 year old female patient with visual and tactile impairments requesting prosthetic rehabilitation of complete edentulousness. Complete removable dentures were constructed utilizing techniques such as the neutral zone and the “all-green” impression being incorporated in a workflow that maintains the same number of clinical appointments with conventional procedures.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Application of the neutral zone technique might present a challenge for both the clinician and the dental technician. However, it offers numerous advantages regarding stability, aesthetics, phonetics, comfort, masticatory ability, function and oral health related quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Special techniques associated to traditional prosthodontics may increase treatment efficiency of difficult cases where implant rehabilitation is excluded for various reasons.</p> 2021-09-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30162 A Case Report of Post-extraction Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma 2021-09-28T06:09:16+00:00 Syeda Shadab Farha shadssyed@gmail.com Sonia Kaur Sodhi Firdous Shaikh Huma Md Saleem Nida Shaikh <p>Rare fibro-osseous lesions that affect the jaw bones and are included in the group of mesodermal odontogenic tumors, Cemento-Ossifying fibromas are usually reported in the middle age with a female predominance unlike that reported in this case. Mostly occurring in the mandible and presents as a painless swelling. A traumatic event may act pre disposing factor or a trigger for development and progression of such lesions of jaw. Considering similar event, exodontia, one of the routine minor surgical procedure performed in a dental setup, might pose as a either pre disposing factor or a trigger. The present article intends to establish the connection between occurrence of such an unlikely case of Central Ossifying fibroma of the mandible hypothesized to have been triggered post extraction.</p> 2021-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30151 Peg Lateral- Whether to Extract or to Preserve? 2021-07-16T11:51:19+00:00 Goldar Kabyik dr.kabyik9830@gmail.com Madan Ellora Tandon Snehi Agarwal Tanya <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Cosmetic desires have improved over time and currently, in the modern world, patients not only demand for an assertive smile but also express a desire to save their natural dentition in favour of extraction whenever and wherever possible. Peg lateral, an undersized, tapered, maxillary lateral incisor<strong>, </strong>not only often presents with periodontal complications but also down-regulates the self-esteem of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To restore a fully functional and esthetically pleasant peg lateral.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A 17-year old female patient complained of mobility and bleeding from upper front teeth region during brushing since last 6 months. So it was decided to perform thorough scaling and root planing, root canal treatment #12, followed by open flap debridement with alloplastic bone graft placement #12. Surgical area was allowed to heal for 15 days and after that composite build-up of peg lateral was done to give it a proper shape.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Uneventful healing was seen in terms of periodontal consideration. Mobility of teeth #12 was reduced after 4weeks and there was no complaint of bleeding during brushing or mastication.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This case highlights the interdisciplinary approach of root canal treatment, open flap debridement, bone regeneration with composite build-up as an innovative approach providing better results with minimum patient apprehension and long term stability.</p> 2021-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30152 A Case Report on Management of a Patient Suffering from Severe Trismus with Bilateral Recurrent Pericoronitis Along with Chronic Oral Submucous Fibrosis- A Premalignant Leison 2021-07-21T10:10:22+00:00 Nanda Kishore Ghoshal drnandakishoreghoshal@gmail.com <p>A 37 years, old male patient reported with the chief complaint of inability to open mouth since 10-11 months and recently pain and swelling resulting from wisdom teeth of both sides limited the mouth opening severely (&lt;9mm, less than one finger opening) that he could not take solid food properly. After partial relief and mouth opening (12mm) with antibiotic therapy patient was examined and diagnosed as oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) along with impacted molars in both sides. Treatment was planned with conservative approach consisted of pharmacotherapy and physiotherapy for osmf and surgical removal of impacted third molars of both sides. Mouth opening was improved gradually (&gt;15mm after 3 weeks, &gt;22mm after 6 weeks,&gt;27 mm after 9 weeks).</p> 2021-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30159 Cribriform Adenocarcinoma of Palate a Rare Variant of Polymorphous Adenocarcinoma with Differences: A Case Report & Review 2021-09-28T06:03:25+00:00 Priyanga G. Sabarad Pallavi dr.pavi.sanju@gmail.com Devasia Jofy <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cribriform adenocarcinoma is a rare salivary gland tumour. It is considered as polymorphous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland with unique features</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A 42 years old female patient reported with a complaint of swelling on right side of the cheek. On clinical, histopathological examination, we concluded it as cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cribriform adenocarcinoma should be considered as separate entity due to its clinical course and prognosis. It should be differentiated from papillary thyroid carcinoma &amp; polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. In the present case considering site of the lesion &amp; histopathological patterns of the tumour it is considered as a rare case report.</p> 2021-08-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30165 Title: Myofascial Pain from Trigger Points in Masticatory Muscles Misleadingly Mimicking Odontogenic Pain: A Case Report 2021-10-06T12:01:39+00:00 Jamileh Ghoddusi Ahmadreza Zarifian ahmadrezazarifian@gmail.com <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) may result from acute muscle strain or chronic over-use and misuse due to dental misalignment, teeth grinding, teeth clenching, anxiety, or stress. It is believed that the actual site of strain forms a trigger point that induces pain in other areas, which can mimic odontogenic pain and lead to unnecessary treatments.</p> <p><strong>Presentation of Case:</strong> Here, we report the case of a 65-year-old woman who suffered from a toothache, which had not been relieved after several dental treatments. We suspected myofascial pain with trigger points in her masticatory muscles. The occlusal interference in posterior teeth on the opposite side of the painful region was adjusted, the masticatory muscles were massaged, and the patient was prescribed with a muscle relaxant. The patient’s pain was significantly relieved and her condition resolved completely afterwards.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> MPS can present as a non-odontogenic toothache originating from trigger points in masticatory muscles. Therefore, clinicians should avoid irreversible dental procedures before excluding non-odontogenic causes of pain.</p> 2021-10-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30166 Oro-Facial Manifestations of Hunter Syndrome with Generalised Primary Tooth Hypomineralisation and its Palliative Management Using Protective Stabilisation: A Case Report 2021-10-09T04:59:19+00:00 Rishi Tyagi Namita Kalra Amit Khatri Puja Sabherwal Padma Yangdol padmayang2920@gmail.com Khadeeja Kulood <p>Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPSII) or Hunter Syndrome is a rare metabolic inherited X-linked recessive disorder caused by deficiencies of various lysosomal enzymes required for glycosaminoglycans, linked to mutations in IDS gene. Hunter Syndrome has an incidence of 1:170000 with a male predilection. The present study elucidates a case of hunter syndrome (MPSII) in a 5-year-old boy encompassing a broad clinical spectrum of systemic manifestations such asshort stature, hirsutism, stiffness in joints, broad claw like fingersadenotonsillar hypertrophy, speech impairment and bilateral conductive hearing lossand&nbsp; distinctive oro-dental manifestations including hypo-mineralised teeth, reduced mouth opening, thick lips and macroglossia etc. The purpose of the report is to highlight the pivotal role of paediatric dentists in improvising early diagnosis, palliative dental care and utilizing modified behaviour management techniques such as the use of passive restraints. The multi-disciplinary dental management approach is preferred to be preventive, non-invasive and customized to meet the special needs of these children.</p> 2021-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30156 Knowledge, Attitude and Referral Practices of Medical Doctors towards Oral Manifestation of Diabetes Mellitus in South East Nigeria 2021-09-28T05:45:32+00:00 Henry Uyi Igbinedion Ugochukwu Chinyem Madubueze ugomadubueze@gmail.com Chibuzor Chimezie Uguru Christian Obasi Akpa Esther Baragha Igbinedion <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Oral manifestations has been identified as a possible outcome associated with poorly controlled glucose levels in diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, attitude and referral practices of medical doctors towards oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus in South East Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross sectional study conducted among 379 medical doctors in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to select respondents and semi-structured self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Knowledge was assessed using 20 questions with 20 possible responses. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. Chi square test and bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine association between variables and statistical significance was set at <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05 for all statistical associations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the respondents was 33.2± 6.8 years. Only 21.1% of the respondents had good knowledge of oral complications of diabetes mellitus however, 83.3% had good attitude towards the condition and only 25.5% had good referral practice towards patients with oral complications from diabetes mellitus. Specialists and resident doctors had better referral practices compared to general practitioners and house officers. This relationship was statistically significant <em>p </em>&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was average knowledge, good attitude but poor referral practices of oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus among medical doctors. There was statistically significant association between Cadre of medical doctor and knowledge of oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus as well as referral of patients with oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus. It is therefore, important to retrain younger doctors during and after medical school on oral health.</p> 2021-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30157 Evaluation of the Measures Taken in the Private Dental Practice during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period in Turkey 2021-09-28T05:51:27+00:00 Rasul Guliyev Selman Yılmaz Çicek Zehra Turun Ersin Ülker ersinu1@yahoo.com Tuğrul Kirtiloğlu Sennur Dabak <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known as 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), emerged in December 2019 and causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19). Due to the nature of the dental practice, most treatment procedures produce significant amounts of droplets and aerosols that pose infection risks. Aim of this study to evaluate the precaution measures taken by Turkish dentists during dental procedures to avoid Covid-19 infection pandemic and their attitudes against the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The survey form of the study was prepared in Google surveys (Alphabet, Mountain View, KA, USA) and consists of 32 questions. The survey was shared to dentists working in private practice in Turkey between July 22 – August 10, 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Seven hundred seventy seven dentists aged between 23-73 years were included in the study. Of the 770 dentists, 124 dentists were with chronic disease and 53 of these dentists limited their practice to only emergency dental treatments, 45 dentists stopped their practice and 26 dentists continued working as usual after 10 March when the first COVİD 19 case was detected. The most common date range for dentists (25.7%) stopping and (31.8%) restricting their work is between April 9 – April 22. Two hundred and ten (27.3%) dentists received training on Covid-19.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The most important challenges dentists in Turkey faced in this period can be listed as, the necessary protective equipment is expensive and the difficulty of transportation of equipment. The results of study showed that dentists must improve the measures and get more training on Covid-19 pandemic.</p> 2021-08-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30158 Orofacial Manifestations of Leprosy Patients in Cameroon 2021-09-28T05:57:11+00:00 Tasing Kelmed Nfor Ashu Michael Agbor agborasm@yahoo.com Alfred Njamnshi Kongyuy Sudeshni Naidoo <p>Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with interpersonal transmission caused by <em>Mycobacterium leprae</em>, a microorganism that has an affinity for the skin and peripheral nerves. In more advanced stages, it affects internal organs and the mucous membranes, with a high potential for causing physical disability.</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of orofacial manifestations in patients diagnosed with leprosy.</p> <p>A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out over a 6 month period from January to June 2020.&nbsp; After explaining the study design to the patients, demographic information and a review on the evolution of leprosy were recorded in a structured questionnaire. An intraoral and extraoral examination was carried out to determine the orofacial leprous lesions.</p> <p>A total of 63 patients with leprosy, 39 (61.9%) males and 24 (38.1%) females with a mean age of 52.2±2.1 were examined. Two thirds 38 (60.3%) presented with the lepromatous variant, while 25 (39.7%) had the tuberculoid variant. Positive oral or facial lesions were seen in 41(65%) patients. Facial lesions were present in 29 (46.1%) half 20 (52.6%) in the lepromatous type and 9 (36.6%) in tuberculoid type. The predominant manifestations were loss of eyelashes or scanty eyebrows 11 (15.9%), followed by hypopigmented patches over facial skin 8 (12.7%) and ocular involvement 6 (9.5%). Oral lesions were present in 12 (19.1%) patients, with which 9 (23.6%) were lepromatous and three (12%) tuberculoid. Fissured tongue 6 (9.5%) and circumferential papillary hypoplasia 3 (4.8%) were more predominant. The mean DMFT and plaque index were 16.5 and 2.7 ± 1.2&nbsp;&nbsp; respectively.</p> <p>Orofacial lesions are associated with leprosy infection with a low frequency. The present study found that dental caries and periodontal diseases were frequent and severe in this population. It is anticipated that the findings of the study will assist in initiating and creating periodic surveys and interventions in terms of awareness campaigns among the leprosy patients. The oral mucosa should be thoroughly examined in patients with leprosy, as the oral mucosa may be a secondary source of <em>Mycobacterium leprae</em> transmission and infection.</p> 2021-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30163 Oral Manifestations of Reflux Oesophagitis in a Cameroonian Tertiary Hospital 2021-09-28T06:13:14+00:00 Ashu Michael Agbor agborasm@yahoo.com Yami Bérinice Tchanlong Zing Salomon Kouemeni Lysette Henry Luma <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Reflux esophagitis also known as gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an esophageal mucosal injury that occurs secondary to retrograde reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral manifestations of adults suffering from gastro-esophageal reflux at the General Hospital of Douala, Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was a descriptive and comparative study carried out on between December to June 2019. The study was based on a questionnaire survey and clinical oral examinations on adults attending the gastroenterology department of the Douala general hospital.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 200 adults aged 18 to 68 years made up of 100 participants with GERD+ and 100 participants without GERD- participated in our study. Our study population consisted of 118 (59.0%) women and 82 (41.0%) men with an average age of 38.2±5 s.d.</p> <p>&nbsp;All of our population used a toothbrush for hygiene and 98% of the GERD+(positive) group used toothpaste; 151 (75.5%) participants, including 81(81%) of patients with GERD+ versus 70(70%) in controls brushed their teeth twice a day. Despite their acceptable oral hygiene, all patients living with GERD+ had at least one dental pathology against 89% without GERD with a significant difference p = 0.002. The most declared reason for consultation for patients with GERD+ was dental sensitivity.</p> <p>Xerostomia, dental erosions, mucosal burns, soft / hard palate erythema, dental sensitivities, dental caries, halitosis was more prevalent in subjects with GERD. Oral pathologies associated with factors such as duration of the disease included dental erosions, halitosis, xerostomia (p &lt;0.001). The unmet treatment needs for population included restorative care (76%) and pharmacological intervention (44%) with a significant difference in the two populations p &lt;0.001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of oral pathologies was high in the population studied, probably reflecting the situation in the general population. This study has showed that there was a significant difference at the oral level between healthy people and those living with gastro-esophageal reflux.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong>Dental surgeon faced with these oral manifestations or one of them should refer the patient in consultation with a gastroenterologist for suspicion of gastro-esophageal reflux. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for management.</p> 2021-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30164 Price County Dental Services Impact Analysis: Quality of Care and Quality of Life in Northern Wisconsin 2021-09-30T10:41:21+00:00 Jodi Olmsted jolmsted@uwsp.edu Emily Thompson Paige Sullivan Messerschmidt <p><strong>Problem Statement: </strong>An examination of epidemiologic data from the partnership between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and the University of Wisconsin-Population Health Institute (UWPHI) consistently ranked the studied service county in the lower quartile of the state for both Quality of Care (QoC) and Quality of Life (QoL) measures. Researchers determined QoL might be more accurately measured using a satisfaction survey. Families were asked about their perceptions of care received and if their QoL was impacted.</p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this follow-up study was to identify how families served through county-based health programs felt about the QoC received, and how QoL was impacted.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional research design was used. An electronic survey was sent to a convenience sample of families with children receiving care (n=108). The survey consisted of 25 closed-ended questions using a four-point Likert scale. Satisfaction survey questions had previously established content validity and reliability. Informed consent was obtained after IRB approval (UWSP-expedited 3242014) before survey administration. Responses were de-identified and kept confidential. Descriptive statistics</p> <p>were used to report the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A response rate of 27.2% (n=30) was obtained. Overall satisfaction with the public health facility received ratings of either excellent (43%) or good (57%).&nbsp; Of the 30 participants, 29 reported families’ dental needs were addressed with either an excellent (63%) or good (37%) overall quality rating. Overall, family members reported complete satisfaction with the care received, and the QoL was positively influenced (100%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Data documented families in county-based programs were satisfied with the QoC received and reported that QoL in comparison to state and national epidemiologic data.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30167 Antibacterial Efficacy of Allium Sativum L. Extract As a Root Canal Irrigant in Pulpless Teeth with Infected Root Canal Systems 2021-10-12T10:33:11+00:00 J. Ghoddusi M. Forghani H. Bagheri E. Aryan M. Koohi Noghondar S. Hajizadeh smnhajizadeh@gmail.com <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Numerous studies have shown that the raw garlic extract has bactericidal effect against many pathogenic bacteria, even some antibiotic-resistant strains. Considering the role of bacteria in the development of pulpal and periapical diseases, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic (<em>Allium Sativum</em> L.) as an endodontic irrigant.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this randomized clinical trial a total of 36 patients with an infected tooth were randomly assigned into two groups (intervention group and control group). Each patient should have a single-canal tooth with a pupless and infected root canal system and chronic apical periodontitis. In group I, canals were irrigated with <em>Allium Sativum</em> L. with 0.1mg/ml concentration (intervention group) and in group II canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (control group). Viable colony-forming units(CFU) were quantified before and 3 days after chemomechanical debridement in each group. The data were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney u test and Wilcoxon test. The significance level in the statistical analysis was considered to be 5% in both groups.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The initial bacterial samples were positive in all 36 teeth. In both groups, the number of CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic samples decreased significantly after intervention (P &lt;0.001). &nbsp;No significant differences were observed between garlic extract and 2.5% NaOCl in the reduction of CFU counts in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There were no significant differences between the antibacterial efficacy of garlic extract and 2.5% NaOCl.</p> 2021-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30150 Air-Powder Polishing: An Update 2021-07-13T05:42:32+00:00 Sharayu Rajendra Dhande dhandesharn1234@gmail.com Sangeeta Muglikar Rashmi Hegde Prerna Ghodke <p>Bacterial plaque is the principle cause of initiation of gingivitis and periodontitis. Removal of this bacterial plaque is essential for maintainence of healthy periodontium. Conventional methods employed for removal of plaque had certain drawbacks like loss of healthy tooth structure causing increased dentinal hypersensitivity, time-consuming procedure, could cause gingival lacerations and gingival bleeding, need to sharpen the instruments, operator fatigue. The air-powder abrasive system produces desired removal of plaque and other debris, surface smoothness with less operator fatigue and prevent loss of tooth structure thereby decreasing incidence of hypersensitivity and gingival tissue lacerations. Nowadays, powders with different compositions, particle sizes and applications are available. The choice of the abrasive powder depends on the device used, the operator’s choice, the type of deposit to be removed and the medical contraindications. Hence, the newer minimally abrasive air powder polishing system is an effective alternative to conventional oral prophylaxis.</p> 2021-07-13T05:41:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalijrrd.com/index.php/IJRRD/article/view/30154 Oral Mucormycosis: Post Complication of COVID Era 2021-08-05T10:26:20+00:00 Ankita Garg anky14.ag@gmail.com Satendra Sharma Shailendra Singh Chauhan Aditya Sinha Mohan Rawat . Deepika <p>Mucormycosis is an invasive and potentially lethal fungal infection and a rare terminal complication of uncontrolled diabetes and other chronic debilitating diseases. The incidence of disease has increased considerably due to widespread use of antibiotics, steroids and longterm use of humidifiers in corona positive patients. Despite surgical and antifungal treatments the mortality rate is higher than 50% and even higher in immunocompromised patients. The role of dentist is of immense importance because mucormycosis primarily occurs around rhinomaxillary or rhino cerebral areas involving facial tissues, palate, alveolar bone and mandibular bone. The present article briefly reviews pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, risks and complications, diagnosis and the management of the mucormycosis.</p> 2021-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##